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ایران..............Iran SightSeeing

Iran SightSeeing
 
 
About Hafez (Hafezieh) in Fars province

 The celebrated Hafez was born in Shiraz in 1326 A.D. in Shiraz.
He is said to have known all the Koran by heart, hence earning the nick-name of Hafez (Memorizer).
With Ferdowsi he ranks as the most popular and best known poet in Iran. His collection (divan) consists of 693 poems, of which 573 are odes.
There are many who consider this modest work as the greate masterpiece of Persian Literature.
His tomb in Shiraz is visited by so many admirers that it may be regarded as a shrine.
Hafez spent most of his life in Shiraz and was buried in the Mosalla garden on the banks of the Roknabad stream, which he often celebrated in his poems.
His mausoleum becomes a forum for musicians and poets. Have known all the Koran by heart, hence earning the nickname of Hafez (Memorizer). With Ferdowsi he ranks as the most popular and best known poet in Iran.
His collection (Divan) consists of 693 poems, of which 573 are odes. There are many who consider this most work as the greatest masterpiece of Persian literature. So many admirers that it may be regarded as a shrine visit his tomb in Shiraz.
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About Persepolis (Takht-e-Jamshid) in Fars province

 On top of the rocky mountain of Rahmat in the plain of Marvdasht, the ruins of Takht-e-Jamshid palace are pre-eminent. Construction of these palaces started at the time of Darius I (521 BC) and was not completed in less than a period of 150 years. Takht-e-Jamshid is registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The entrance of the complex is formed by a two-ramp stairway composed of 110 rather wide and short steps. On top of the stairways is the main entrance or `The Great Gate`, marked by two statues of a bull with a human head and a pair of wings. There are two exits, one to the south and the other to the east. The south exit or gate connects to the Apadana Palace.

Takht-e-Jamshid is 125 thousand sq.m. in area, and is composed of the main sections:
- Official reception halls and palaces
- Smaller and more private palaces
- Royal treasury
- Private fort and special fortification

Various edifices or palaces that have been built are as follows:
- The Small Palace or the Gate of All Nations
- The Apadana Palace
- The Palace of Darius,(one of the primary palaces constructed on the Takht-e-Jamshid rock, which was also called the `Tachar` Palace.)
- Hall or palace of a Hundred Columns
- The Semifinished Gate or palace
- Treasury of Takht-e-Jamshid
- The Three Doorway or Consultation Palace or Hall
- The stone well
- Tombs of Ardeshir II and III
- The Palace of Khashayar Shah (called `Hadish`)

Takht-e-Jamshid was set ablaze by Alexander the Greek (330 BC) after which only ruins have remained. From these ruins, the Apadana Palace, at the main entrance, with 36 columns and three balconies (12 columns in each) in the north, south and eastern sections of the palace have been remained. The northern and eastern terraces are connected to the gardens opposite. The height of the platform in the Apadana Palace is 16 m. and the height of its columns is 18 m.
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Alamout in Ghazvin province

Those who favor ambitious excursions and unusual historical episodes are recommended to go near the source of the Alamut river on the southern foothills of the Alborz Mountains.
There, fortified eagles` nest recall unbelievable but authentic adventures of the (Old Man of the Mountains) - Hasan Sabah, the Grand Master (1040-1124) - and of his sect of (Assassins) or (Hashashins). The historical fortresses are known as the Castle of the Assassins, which were first introduced into European literature by the Returning Crusaders, and made famous this century in Dane Freya Stark`s classical Valleys of the Assassins.
These were the heavily fortified lairs of the adherents of a bizarre religious cult, based loosely on the precepts of the Ismaili Sect. Hasan Sabah founded the Cult in the 11th century. This heretical and widely feared Sect sent out killers throughout the region to murder the leading political and religious figures.
Its followers, the Hashishiyun, were so called because of their leader`s alleged cunning ruse of taking them into beautiful secret gardens (filled with equally enticing young maidens), getting them stoned on hashish and then sending them out on their homicidal assignments under the illusion of Hasan Sabah had the power to transport them to paradise.
The cult at its height extended from Syria to Khorasan. Until 1256, when the Mongols captured its castles, the Assassins spread fear throughout the region, although some scholars claim that their reputation was exaggerated.
As one might expect. The outlaw mountain hideaways were designed to be impregnable and inaccessible, and to this day it is still extremely difficult to visit them; a complete tour of the castle in this region would take about a week on horseback with a local guide. Many of them are only accessible to experienced and well-equipped mountaineers.

 
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Ali Qapu in Esfahan province

 The name Ali Qapu, (Magnificent Gate), was given to this place as it was right at the entrance to the Safavid palaces which stretched from the Maidan Naqsh-i-Jahan to the Chahar Bagh Boulevard.
The building, another wonderful Safavid edifice, was built by decree of Shah Abbas the Great in the early seventeenth century. It was here that the great monarch used to entertain noble visitors, and foreign ambassadors.
Shah Abbas, here for the first time celebrated the Now - ruz (New Year`s Day) of 1006 AH / 1597 A.D. A large and massive rectangular structure, the Ali Qapu is 48 meters high and has six floors, fronted with a wide terrace whose ceiling is inlaid and supported by wooden columns.
Ali Qapu is rich in naturalistic wall paintings by Reza Abbassi, the court painter of Shah Abbas I, and his pupils. There are floral, animal, and bird motifs. The highly ornamented doors and windows of the palace have almost all been pillaged at times of social anarchy. Only one window on the third floor has escaped the ravages of time. Ali Qapu was repaired and restored substantially during the reign of Shah Sultan Hussein, the last Safavid ruler, but fell into a dreadful state of dilapidation again during the short reign of invading Afghans. under the Qajar Nasir al-Din shah`s reign (1848-96), the Safavid cornices and floral tiles above the portal were replaced by tiles bearing inscriptions.
Shah Abbas II was enthusiastic about the embellishment and perfection of Ali Qapu. His chief contribution was given to the magnificent hall, the constructures on the third floor. The 18 columns of the hall are covered with mirrors and its ceiling is decorated with great paintings.
The chancellery was stationed on the first floor. On the sixth, the royal reception and banquets were held. The largest rooms are found on this floor. The stucco decoration of the banquet hall abounds in motif of various vessels and cups. The sixth floor was popularly called (the music room).
Here various ensembles performed music and sang songs. From the upper galleries, the Safavid ruler watched polo, maneuvers and the horse-racing opposite the square of Naqsh-i-Jahan.
Cause of Denomination
The Ali Qapu has multiple connotations, but generally connotes entrance or supreme gate to the complex of palaces and public buildings of the Safavid Government.
Construction Stages
The Ali Qapu building was founded in several stages, beginning from a building with a single gate, with entrance to the government building complex, and gradually developed, ending in the existing shape.
The period of the development, with intervals lasted approximately seventy years.
First Stage :
The initial building acting as entrance to the complex was in cubical shape and in two stories, with dimensions measuring 20 x 19 meter and 13 meter high.
Second Stage :
Foundation of the upper hall, built on the entrance vestibule, with cubical shape, over the initial cubic shape structure with the same height in two visible stories.
Third Stage :
Foundation of the fifth story, the music amphitheater or music hall, built on the lower hall, using the central room for sky light, and thus the vertical extension being emphasized.
Fourth Stage :
Foundation of the eastern verandah or pavilion advancing towards the square, supported by the tower shaped building. By foundation of this verandah, the entrance vestibule was extended along the main gate and passage to the market, perpendicular to the eastern flank of the building.
Fifth Stage :
Foundation of the wooden ceiling of the verandah, supported by 18 wooden columns, and contemporaneous with erection of the ceiling, an additional stairway of the southern flank was founded and was called the Kingly Stairway.
Sixth Stage :
During this stage a water tower was built in the northern flank for provision of water for the copper pool of the columned verandah.
Plaster decorations in reception story and music hall.
The room on the sixth floor is also decorated with plasterwork, representing pots and vessels and one is famous as the music and sound room. It is certainly well worth visiting for the cut out decorations round the room, which represent a considerable artistic feat. These cut out shapes were not placed there to act as cupboards: the stuccowork is most delicate and falls to pieces at the highest touch. So we conclude that it was placed in position in these rooms for ornament and decoration. The rooms were used for private parties and for the King`s musicians, and these hollow places in the walls retained the echoes and produced the sounds of the singing and musical instruments clearly in all parts.
Ceiling decorations
The decoration of the large room on the third floor which opens out on the large pillared hall, and which was used by Shah Abbas for entertaining his official guests is the most interesting. Fortunately the ceilings, on which birds are depicted in their natural colors, have remained without interference in their original state from Safavid times, and these are the best roofs in the building.
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Alisadr Cave in Hamedan province

 The Alisadr cave-lake, 120 km to the north-west of Hamadan near a village by this same name and at the foothill of Su-Bashi, is one of the strangest natural sights in Iran, in fact, the latter is an endless network of caves full of clear water.
The Alisadr cave-lake was discovered in the first half of 70s, and is now being visited by waves of local and foreign tourists. In some sections the caves are more than 100 meters wide.
In some sections the cave ceiling,is more than 10 meters high.
This cave is located 80 kilometers northwest of Hamadan, in the Subashi mountains close to Ali Sadr village and is one of the most beautiful natural features in the world.
This cave is composed of large and small spiral channels which are linked to one another.
In some sections the cave is 100 meters wide and 10 meters high.
Ali Sadr cave was discovered during the fourth and fifth centuries and today lots of tourists visist it in the summer.
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Alisadr Cave in Hamedan province

 The Alisadr cave-lake, 120 km to the north-west of Hamadan near a village by this same name and at the foothill of Su-Bashi, is one of the strangest natural sights in Iran, in fact, the latter is an endless network of caves full of clear water.
The Alisadr cave-lake was discovered in the first half of 70s, and is now being visited by waves of local and foreign tourists. In some sections the caves are more than 100 meters wide.
In some sections the cave ceiling,is more than 10 meters high.
This cave is located 80 kilometers northwest of Hamadan, in the Subashi mountains close to Ali Sadr village and is one of the most beautiful natural features in the world.
This cave is composed of large and small spiral channels which are linked to one another.
In some sections the cave is 100 meters wide and 10 meters high.
Ali Sadr cave was discovered during the fourth and fifth centuries and today lots of tourists visist it in the summer.


نوشته شده توسط :آرش
سه شنبه 27 دی 1384-01:01 ق.ظ
نظرات() 

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دوشنبه 30 مرداد 1396 08:25 ق.ظ
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